TOP 100 คำศัพท์ภาษาอังกฤษที่เจอในข้อสอบ TOEIC (21-40)

คราวก่อนผมได้นำเสนอคำศัพท์ภาษาอังกฤษในหัวข้อ TOP 100 คำศัพท์ภาษาอังกฤษที่เจอในข้อสอบ TOEIC (1-20) ในคราวนี้เราจะมาต่อกันอีก 20 คำ มาค่อยๆเรียนรู้ไปพร้อมๆกันได้เลยครับ^^

 

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21. incur
(verb)
DEFINITION
1. to experience something unpleasant; 2. to become burdened with something, such as a debt
SYNONYMS
sustain, encounter, experience
ANTONYMS
avoid, elude, evade, escape
USAGE EXAMPLES
They had to incur penalty fees because they sent the payment in late. (sustain)
If we don’t find a way to cut operating costs, we will incur significant losses. (experience)

 

22. mull
(verb)
DEFINITION
to reflect deeply on a subject
SYNONYMS
ponder, reflect, meditate, think, weigh
USAGE EXAMPLES
Before choosing a final candidate for the position, he mulled over the list of interviewees. (thought, reflected)
Rumor has it, the retired athlete is mulling a return to the NBA. (pondering, thinking over)

 

23. savvy
(adjective, noun)
DEFINITION
(adj.) 1. sophisticated and intuitive; 2. having practical knowledge and ability; (n.) keen understanding
SYNONYMS
(adj.) resourceful, astute, sharp, shrewd, informed, experienced, (n.) understanding, discernment
ANTONYMS
(adj.) stupid, uninformed, obtuse
USAGE EXAMPLES
It is not enough to create a wonderful product; an entrepreneur must have business savvy as well. (understanding, intelligence)
The art center’s new controller displayed her financial savvy by correcting the budget deficit within her first year. (understanding, shrewdness)

 

24. streamline
(verb)
DEFINITION
1. to make more economical or efficient; 2. to make something more contoured so that it may move more fluidly through air or water
SYNONYMS
improve, organize, simplify, modernize, contour, shape, smooth
ANTONYMS
complicate
USAGE EXAMPLES
A major goal of the review process is to help streamline operations, which should, in turn, boost profits. (modernize, simplify, improve)
When aircraft designers aim to streamline their planes, they are striving for a model that creates less air resistance, thereby lowering fuel consumption. (contour, improve)

 

25. subjective
(adjective)
DEFINITION
1. modified by individual bias, rather than based on facts; 2. based on views, experience, or background particular to a givenperson; 3. existing only in the mind and not independently of it.
SYNONYMS
prejudiced, personal, arbitrary, biased, individual
ANTONYMS
objective, non-subjective
USAGE EXAMPLES
My subjective evaluation of the situation calls for an outside point of view, for balance.(personal, biased)
His brother did not testify due to his highly subjective point of view. (prejudiced, biased, arbitrary)

 

26. systematically
(adverb)
DEFINITION
done in a consistent and systematic manner
SYNONYMS
orderly, methodically, consistently
ANTONYMS
randomly
USAGE EXAMPLES
After being systematically passed up for a promotion 3 years in a row, Mike finally quit his job. (consistently)
We’ll have to systematically go through our old invoices to find the billing discrepancy. (orderly, methodically)

 

27. devise
(verb)
DEFINITION
to create, invent or creatively think up an idea or plan
SYNONYMS
plan, arrange, design, invent, dream up, concoct, plot, collude, conspire
USAGE EXAMPLES
Last night I devised a plan to help turn this company around. (created, invented)
My assistant is devising the agenda for our next board meeting. (creating)

 

28. foremost
(adjective)
DEFINITION
1. the most important; 2. before all else
SYNONYMS
first, highest, leading, chief, principle, best, prominent, predominant
ANTONYMS
last, behind, unimportant
USAGE EXAMPLES
First and foremost, we will try to have fun, but our secondary goal is winning. (most important, mostprominently)
Professor Jackson was the university’s foremost expert in the field of biology. (prominent, best)

 

29. incentive
(noun)
DEFINITION
something that encourages action
SYNONYMS
inducement, enticement, instigation, stimulus, motivation, impetus, encouragement, inspiration
USAGE EXAMPLES
The promise of a promotion and raise gave her the incentive she needed to bring in more sales. (stimulus, motive)
Newly single, he suddenly had incentive to begin a self-improvement program. (motive, inspiration)

 

30. novel
(adjective)
DEFINITION
new and original
SYNONYMS
new, original, innovative, unprecedented, unusual
ANTONYMS
old, outdated, antiquated, obsolete
USAGE EXAMPLES
His novel ideas helped turn the company in a new, more successful direction. (new, original)
He came up with a novel solution that was the first of its kind. (new, unprecedented)

 

31. onus
(noun)
DEFINITION
1. burden, duty, or responsibility; 2. the blame for something; 3. burden of proof
SYNONYMS
burden, responsibility, load, obligation, duty, blame, stigma
ANTONYMS
acclaim, commendation
USAGE EXAMPLES
When the economy is in a recession, many believe the onus is on the President and Congress to pull the country out of it. (burden, obligation)
He’ll always bear the onus of having made bad investment decisions and losing most of the family’s retirement savings. (blame, responsibility)

 

32. opportune
(adjective)
DEFINITION
suitable for a purpose or occurring at the right time
SYNONYMS
appropriate, fitting, apt, auspicious, fortuitous, timely, fortunate
ANTONYMS
inopportune
USAGE EXAMPLES
The family dinner was an opportune time for the young couple to announce their engagement. (appropriate)
Our morning meeting will provide an opportune time to discuss our strategic plan. (convenient, apt)

 

33. overt
(adjective)
DEFINITION
open to view, not hidden
SYNONYMS
open, apparent, obvious, unconcealed, clear, evident, manifest, palpable
ANTONYMS
hidden, concealed, covert
USAGE EXAMPLES
Although he didn’t criticize me overtly, I could tell that he wasn’t happy with my job performance. (obviously, openly)
In an overt show of support, the President met publicly with the candidate he hoped would succeed him. (unconcealed, clear)

 

34. preface
(noun, verb)
DEFINITION
(n.) an introduction at the beginning of a book; (v.) to begin with a preface or introduction before presenting your main point
SYNONYMS
(n.) introduction, foreword, prologue, (v.) introduce, begin, open
ANTONYMS
(n.) epilogue, postscript, addendum, closing, conclusion, (v.) close, conclude
USAGE EXAMPLES
I love his books because they are immediately engaging, right from the preface. (introduction, prologue)
The world hopes that talks in the Middle East will be a preface to peace. (introduction, beginning, prologue)

 

35. remit
(verb)
DEFINITION
1. to send or dispatch a payment; 2. to cancel or hold back from enforcing something; 3. to reduce the intensity of something (for instance, pain); 4. to restore something; 5. to refer a case to another court (inlaw); 6. to restore something to its original condition
SYNONYMS
pay, repay, reimburse, send, dispatch, reduce, restore, postpone, defer, refer, revoke, nullify, invalidate
ANTONYMS
intensify, increase, persist, continue
USAGE EXAMPLES
In order to avoid any interest charges, please remit your payment by the end of the week. (send, dispatch, pay)
She remitted the fines because the payment came earlier than expected. (reduced)

 

36. curt
(adjective)
spoken shortly and often rudely — terse
SYNONYMS
terse, abrupt, brusque, short, blunt, rude
ANTONYMS
gracious, lengthy
USAGE EXAMPLES
We all know he is a busy man, but he still didn’t need to be so curt with his secretary when she asked him a question. (terse, abrupt)
She gave only a curt nod in reply before rushing off. (short, brusque)

 

37. assimilate
(verb)
DEFINITION
1. to make similar, esp. by absorption into a culture or population; 2. to take into the mind or system
SYNONYMS
integrate, incorporate, absorb, adjust, acculturate, adapt, conform, acclimatize, digest, grasp
ANTONYMS
separate, misunderstand, reject
USAGE EXAMPLES
She was quick to assimilate the new information, and that was part of what made her such a valuable employee. (grasp, absorb)
The children were quicker to assimilate than their parents, adopting American dress, language, and culture with relative ease. (adapt, conform)

 

38. demeanor
(noun)
DEFINITION
a person’s outward behavior, manner, or appearance, especially as it reflects on mood or character
SYNONYMS
behavior, attitude, conduct, disposition, deportment
ANTONYMS
temperament
USAGE EXAMPLES
His happy and optimistic demeanor put the employees at ease. (attitude, disposition)
We guessed that his lack of friends was due to his unfriendly demeanor. (behavior, conduct)

 

39. egregious
(adjective)
DEFINITION
extremely and blatantly bad
SYNONYMS
blatant, flagrant, glaring, gross, rank, outrageous
ANTONYMS
good, great, nice, remarkable
USAGE EXAMPLES
It was an egregious error on his part. (unusually bad, flagrant)
That was an egregious oversight on his part and could cost our company millions. (unusually bad, blatant)

 

40. expatriate
(verb, noun)
DEFINITION
(v.) 1. to banish or exile someone from a country; 2. to permanently leave one’s country; (n.) an expatriated person
SYNONYMS
(v.) exile, banish, deport, withdraw, emigrate, (n.) exile, outcast, emigrant, deportee, refugee
ANTONYMS
(v.) immigrate, (n.) immigrant
USAGE EXAMPLES
Hemingway was an American expatriate who wrote of his many interesting adventures in Europe. (one who lives outside his own country)
He was tired of the regulations and taxes exacted on businesses in France, so he decided to expatriate from France to the United States. (permanently move)

 

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